Stimulants are drugs that speed up users’ mental and/or physical functions. Stimulants enhance locomotion, wakefulness and alertness and are often referred to on the street as “uppers.”
The effects of stimulants upon users’ central and peripheral nervous systems varies depending on the particular stimulant, but may include, in addition to a lessened requirement for sleep or food, increases in:
- heart rate
- blood pressure
While some stimulants improve mood and relieve anxiety, many stimulants also cause anxiety and heart failure.
Medically, stimulants are prescribed to treat a number of conditions, including:
- to counteract fatigue and lethargy
- to reduce drowsiness, as in narcolepsy
- to decrease appetite to treat obesity by promoting weight loss
- to improve concentration, as with attention disorders
- to treat depression
Popular prescription stimulants on the market today include Adderall, Concerta, and Retalin.